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Solitons in lattice field theories via tight-binding supersymmetry

TitleSolitons in lattice field theories via tight-binding supersymmetry
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsS. Balasubramanian, A. Patoary, and V. Galitski
JournalJ. High Energy Phys.
Date PublishedJUL 9
Type of ArticleArticle
KeywordsLattice Integrable Models, Lattice Quantum Field Theory, Solitons Monopoles and Instantons

Reflectionless potentials play an important role in constructing exact solutions to classical dynamical systems (such as the Korteweg-de Vries equation), non-perturbative solutions of various large-N field theories (such as the Gross-Neveu model), and closely related solitonic solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the theory of superconductivity. These solutions rely on the inverse scattering method, which reduces these seemingly unrelated problems to identifying reflectionless potentials of an auxiliary one-dimensional quantum scattering problem. There are several ways of constructing these potentials, one of which is quantum mechanical supersymmetry (SUSY). In this paper, motivated by recent experimental platforms, we generalize this framework to develop a theory of lattice solitons. We first briefly review the classical inverse scattering method in the continuum limit, focusing on the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit. We then generalize this methodology to lattice versions of interacting field theories. Our analysis hinges on the use of trace identities, which are relations connecting the potential of an equation of motion to the scattering data. For a discrete Schrodinger operator, such trace identities had been known as far back as Toda; however, we derive a new set of identities for the discrete Dirac operator. We then use these identities in a lattice Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model to show that lattice solitons correspond to reflectionless potentials associated with the discrete scattering problem. These models are of significance as they are equivalent to a mean-field theory of a lattice superconductor. To explicitly construct these solitons, we generalize supersymmetric quantum mechanics to tight-binding models. We show that a matrix transformation exists that maps a tight-binding model to an isospectral one which shares the same structure and scattering properties. The corresponding soliton solutions have both modulated hopping and onsite potential, the former of which has no analogue in the continuum limit. We explicitly compute both topological and non-topological soliton solutions as well as bound state spectra in the aforementioned models.