|Title||Gateless and reversible Carrier density tunability in epitaxial graphene devices functionalized with chromium tricarbonyl|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||A. F. Rigosi, M. Kruskopf, H. M. Hill, H. Jin, B-Y. Wu, P. E. Johnson, S. Zhang, M. Berilla, A. R. Hight Walker, C. A. Hacker, D. B. Newell, and R. E. Elmquist|
|Type of Article||Article|
Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG) has been shown to have clearly superior properties for the development of quantized Hall resistance (QHR) standards. One major difficulty with QHR devices based on EG is that their electrical properties drift slowly over time if the device is stored in air due to adsorption of atmospheric molecular dopants. The crucial parameter for device stability is the charge carrier density, which helps determine the magnetic flux density required for precise QHR measurements. This work presents one solution to this problem of instability in air by functionalizing the surface of EG devices with chromium tricarbonyl - Cr(CO)(3). Observations of carrier density stability in air over the course of one year are reported, as well as the ability to tune the carrier density by annealing the devices. For low temperature annealing, the presence of Cr(CO)(3) stabilizes the electrical properties and allows for the reversible tuning of the carrier density in millimeter-scale graphene devices close to the Dirac point. Precision measurements in the quantum Hall regime show no detrimental effect on the carrier mobility. Published by Elsevier Ltd.