Tracking the dynamics of physical systems in real time is a prime application of quantum computers. Using a trapped-ion system with up to six qubits, we simulate the real-time dynamics of a lattice gauge theory in\ 1+1\ dimensions, i.e., the lattice Schwinger model, and demonstrate nonperturbative effects such as pair creation for times much longer than previously accessible. We study the gate requirement of two formulations of the model using the Suzuki-Trotter product formula, as well as the trade-off between errors from the ordering of the Hamiltonian terms, the Trotter step size, and experimental imperfections. To mitigate experimental errors, a recent symmetry-protection protocol for suppressing coherent errors and a symmetry-inspired postselection scheme are applied. This work demonstrates the integrated theoretical, algorithmic, and experimental approach that is essential for efficient simulation of lattice gauge theories and other complex physical systems.

}, doi = {10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.020324}, url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.020324}, author = {Nguyen, Nhung H. and Tran, Minh C. and Zhu, Yingyue and Green, Alaina M. and Alderete, C. Huerta and Davoudi, Zohreh and Linke, Norbert M.} } @article { WOS:000674692700001, title = {Faster Digital Quantum Simulation by Symmetry Protection}, journal = {PRX Quantum}, volume = {2}, number = {1}, year = {2021}, month = {FEB 12}, publisher = {AMER PHYSICAL SOC}, type = {Article}, abstract = {Simulating the dynamics of quantum systems is an important application of quantum computers and has seen a variety of implementations on current hardware. We show that by introducing quantum gates implementing unitary transformations generated by the symmetries of the system, one can induce destructive interference between the errors from different steps of the simulation, effectively giving faster quantum simulation by symmetry protection. We derive rigorous bounds on the error of a symmetry-protected simulation algorithm and identify conditions for optimal symmetry protection. In particular, when the symmetry transformations are chosen as powers of a unitary, the error of the algorithm is approximately projected to the so-called quantum Zeno subspaces. We prove a bound on this approximation error, exponentially improving a recent result of Burgarth, Facchi, Gramegna, and Pascazio. We apply the symmetry-protection technique to the simulations of the XXZ Heisenberg interactions with local disorder and the Schwinger model in quantum field theory. For both systems, the technique can reduce the simulation error by several orders of magnitude over the unprotected simulation. Finally, we provide numerical evidence suggesting that the technique can also protect simulation against other types of coherent, temporally correlated errors, such as the 1/f noise commonly found in solid-state experiments.}, doi = {10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.010323}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Su, Yuan and Carney, Daniel and Taylor, Jacob M.} } @article {21336, title = {Lieb-Robinson Light Cone for Power-Law Interactions}, journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.}, volume = {127}, year = {2021}, month = {Oct}, pages = {160401}, abstract = {The Lieb-Robinson theorem states that information propagates with a finite velocity in quantum systems on a lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions. What are the speed limits on information propagation in quantum systems with power-law interactions, which decay as\ 1/rα\ at distance\ r? Here, we present a definitive answer to this question for all exponents\ α\>2d\ and all spatial dimensions\ d. Schematically, information takes time at least\ rmin{1,α-2d}\ to propagate a distance\ r. As recent state transfer protocols saturate this bound, our work closes a decades-long hunt for optimal Lieb-Robinson bounds on quantum information dynamics with power-law interactions.

}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.160401}, url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.160401}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Guo, Andrew Y. and Baldwin, Christopher L. and Ehrenberg, Adam and Gorshkov, Alexey V. and Lucas, Andrew} } @article {21211, title = {Optimal State Transfer and Entanglement Generation in Power-Law Interacting Systems}, journal = {Phys. Rev. X}, volume = {11}, year = {2021}, month = {Jul}, pages = {031016}, abstract = {We present an optimal protocol for encoding an unknown qubit state into a multiqubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like state and, consequently, transferring quantum information in large systems exhibiting power-law (1/rα) interactions. For all power-law exponents\ α\ between\ d\ and\ 2d+1, where\ d\ is the dimension of the system, the protocol yields a polynomial speed-up for\ α\>2d\ and a superpolynomial speed-up for\ α<=2d, compared to the state of the art. For all\ α\>d, the protocol saturates the Lieb-Robinson bounds (up to subpolynomial corrections), thereby establishing the optimality of the protocol and the tightness of the bounds in this regime. The protocol has a wide range of applications, including in quantum sensing, quantum computing, and preparation of topologically ordered states. In addition, the protocol provides a lower bound on the gate count in digital simulations of power-law interacting systems.

}, keywords = {quantum algorithms, quantum computing}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.11.031016}, url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevX.11.031016}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Guo, Andrew Y. and Deshpande, Abhinav and Lucas, Andrew and Gorshkov, Alexey V.} } @article {childs_theory_2021, title = {Theory of {Trotter} {Error} with {Commutator} {Scaling}}, journal = {Phys. Rev. X}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, year = {2021}, note = {Place: ONE PHYSICS ELLIPSE, COLLEGE PK, MD 20740-3844 USA Publisher: AMER PHYSICAL SOC Type: Article}, month = {feb}, abstract = {The Lie-Trotter formula, together with its higher-order generalizations, provides a direct approach to decomposing the exponential of a sum of operators. Despite significant effort, the error scaling of such product formulas remains poorly understood. We develop a theory of Trotter error that overcomes the limitations of prior approaches based on truncating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion. Our analysis directly exploits the commutativity of operator summands, producing tighter error bounds for both real- and imaginary-time evolutions. Whereas previous work achieves similar goals for systems with geometric locality or Lie-algebraic structure, our approach holds, in general. We give a host of improved algorithms for digital quantum simulation and quantum Monte Carlo methods, including simulations of second-quantized plane-wave electronic structure, k-local Hamiltonians, rapidly decaying power-law interactions, clustered Hamiltonians, the transverse field Ising model, and quantum ferromagnets, nearly matching or even outperforming the best previous results. We obtain further speedups using the fact that product formulas can preserve the locality of the simulated system. Specifically, we show that local observables can be simulated with complexity independent of the system size for power-law interacting systems, which implies a Lieb-Robinson bound as a by-product. Our analysis reproduces known tight bounds for first- and second-order formulas. Our higher-order bound overestimates the complexity of simulating a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with an even-odd ordering of terms by only a factor of 5, and it is close to tight for power-law interactions and other orderings of terms. This result suggests that our theory can accurately characterize Trotter error in terms of both asymptotic scaling and constant prefactor.

}, issn = {2160-3308}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.11.011020}, author = {Childs, Andrew M. and Su, Yuan and Tran, Minh C. and Wiebe, Nathan and Zhu, Shuchen} } @article {tran_destructive_2020, title = {Destructive {Error} {Interference} in {Product}-{Formula} {Lattice} {Simulation}, journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.}, volume = {124}, number = {22}, year = {2020}, note = {Place: ONE PHYSICS ELLIPSE, COLLEGE PK, MD 20740-3844 USA Publisher: AMER PHYSICAL SOC Type: Article}, month = {jun}, abstract = {Quantum computers can efficiently simulate the dynamics of quantum systems. In this Letter, we study the cost of digitally simulating the dynamics of several physically relevant systems using the first-order product-formula algorithm. We show that the errors from different Trotterization steps in the algorithm can interfere destructively, yielding a much smaller error than previously estimated. In particular, we prove that the total error in simulating a nearest-neighbor interacting system of n sites for time t using the first-order product formula with r time slices is O(nt/r + nt(3)/r(2)) when nt(2)/r is less than a small constant. Given an error tolerance epsilon, the error bound yields an estimate of max\{O(n(2)t/epsilon), O(n(2)t(3/2)/epsilon(1/2))\} for the total gate count of the simulation. The estimate is tighter than previous bounds and matches the empirical performance observed in Childs et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 9456 (2018)]. We also provide numerical evidence for potential improvements and conjecture an even tighter estimate for the gate count.}, issn = {0031-9007}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.220502}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Chu, Su-Kuan and Su, Yuan and Childs, Andrew M. and Gorshkov, V, Alexey} } @article {16891, title = {Hierarchy of Linear Light Cones with Long-Range Interactions}, journal = {Phys. Rev. X}, volume = {10}, year = {2020}, month = {Jul}, pages = {031009}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.10.031009}, url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevX.10.031009}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Chen, Chi-Fang and Ehrenberg, Adam and Guo, Andrew Y. and Deshpande, Abhinav and Hong, Yifan and Gong, Zhe-Xuan and Gorshkov, Alexey V. and Lucas, Andrew} } @article { ISI:000548153300005, title = {Signaling and scrambling with strongly long-range interactions}, journal = {Phys. Rev. A}, volume = {102}, number = {1}, year = {2020}, month = {JUL 8}, pages = {010401}, publisher = {AMER PHYSICAL SOC}, type = {Article}, abstract = {Strongly long-range interacting quantum systems-those with interactions decaying as a power law 1/r(alpha) in the distance r on a D-dimensional lattice for alpha <= D-have received significant interest in recent years. They are present in leading experimental platforms for quantum computation and simulation, as well as in theoretical models of quantum-information scrambling and fast entanglement creation. Since no notion of locality is expected in such systems, a general understanding of their dynamics is lacking. In a step towards rectifying this problem, we prove two Lieb-Robinson-type bounds that constrain the time for signaling and scrambling in strongly long-range interacting systems, for which no tight bounds were previously known. Our first bound applies to systems mappable to free-particle Hamiltonians with long-range hopping, and is saturable for alpha <= D/2. Our second bound pertains to generic long-range interacting spin Hamiltonians and gives a tight lower bound for the signaling time to extensive subsets of the system for all alpha < D. This many-site signaling time lower bounds the scrambling time in strongly long-range interacting systems.}, issn = {1050-2947}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.102.010401}, author = {Guo, Andrew Y. and Tran, Minh C. and Childs, Andrew M. and Gorshkov, V, Alexey and Gong, Zhe-Xuan} } @article {ISI:000474892400001, title = {Locality and Digital Quantum Simulation of Power-Law Interactions}, journal = {Phys. Rev. X}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, year = {2019}, month = {JUL 10}, pages = {031006}, publisher = {AMER PHYSICAL SOC}, type = {Article}, abstract = {The propagation of information in nonrelativistic quantum systems obeys a speed limit known as a Lieb-Robinson bound. We derive a new Lieb-Robinson bound for systems with interactions that decay with distance r as a power law, 1/r(alpha). The bound implies an effective light cone tighter than all previous bounds. Our approach is based on a technique for approximating the time evolution of a system, which was first introduced as part of a quantum simulation algorithm by Haah et al., FOCS{\textquoteright} 18. To bound the error of the approximation, we use a known Lieb-Robinson bound that is weaker than the bound we establish. This result brings the analysis full circle, suggesting a deep connection between Lieb-Robinson bounds and digital quantum simulation. In addition to the new Lieb-Robinson bound, our analysis also gives an error bound for the Haah et al. quantum simulation algorithm when used to simulate power-law decaying interactions. In particular, we show that the gate count of the algorithm scales with the system size better than existing algorithms when alpha > 3D (where D is the number of dimensions).}, issn = {2160-3308}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.9.031006}, author = {Tran, Minh C. and Guo, Andrew Y. and Su, Yuan and Garrison, James R. and Eldredge, Zachary and Foss-Feig, Michael and Childs, Andrew M. and Gorshkov, Alexey V.} } @article {10101, title = {Dynamical Phase Transitions in Sampling Complexity}, journal = {Phys. Rev. Lett.}, volume = {121}, year = {2018}, month = {Jul}, pages = {030501}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.030501}, url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.030501}, author = {Deshpande, Abhinav and Fefferman, Bill and Tran, Minh C. and Foss-Feig, Michael and Gorshkov, Alexey V.} }