|Title||Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Volume 55|
|Year of Publication||2008|
|Authors||L. M. Duan, and C. Monroe|
|Series Title||Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|Keywords||2008, Single Fellow|
In this article, we review several new approaches to scalable and robust quantum communication, state engineering, and quantum computation. We consider the use of atomic ensembles, linear optical elements, and trapped ions for this purpose, all having significant experimental simplifications compared to conventional systems. These new approaches are based on probabilistic entanglement of quantum bits, where the dominant source of error is the (typically small) probability of entanglement success per attempt. By exploiting the properties of this particular noise process, we can design scalable quantum network schemes that are inherently insensitive to the noise, resulting in error-correction thresholds that are much more forgiving than any conventional threshold requirement. We review several such types of schemes in different contexts, and show their close relations with the current experimental implementations of scalable quantum information processing. Experimental progress along these approaches will be briefly remarked, especially in a system of trapped atomic ions.