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Equivalence between fermion-to-qubit mappings in two spatial dimensions


We argue that all locality-preserving mappings between fermionic observables and Pauli matrices on a two-dimensional lattice can be generated from the exact bosonization in Chen et al. [Ann. Phys. (N. Y) 393, 234 (2018)], whose gauge constraints project onto the subspace of the toric code with emergent fermions. Starting from the exact bosonization and applying Clifford finite-depth generalized local unitary transformation, we can achieve all possible fermion-to-qubit mappings (up to the re-pairing of Majorana fermions). In particular, we discover a new supercompact encoding using 1.25 qubits per fermion on the square lattice. We prove the existence of finite-depth quantum circuits to obtain fermion-to-qubit mappings with qubit-fermion ratios r=1+1/2k for positive integers k, utilizing the trivialness of quantum cellular automata in two spatial dimensions. Also, we provide direct constructions of fermion-to-qubit mappings with ratios arbitrarily close to 1. When the ratio reaches 1, the fermion-to-qubit mapping reduces to the one-dimensional Jordan-Wigner transformation along a certain path in the two-dimensional lattice. Finally, we explicitly demonstrate that the Bravyi-Kitaev superfast simulation, the Verstraete-Cirac auxiliary method, Kitaev’s exactly solved model, the Majorana loop stabilizer codes, and the compact fermion-to-qubit mapping can all be obtained from the exact bosonization.

Publication Details

Publication Type
Journal Article
Year of Publication
PRX Quantum
Date Published

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