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High Performance Nanophotonic Cavities and Interconnects for Optical Parametric Oscillators and Quantum Emitters

Date & Time

April 5, 2024, 10:00am

Where to Attend

PSC 2136


Edgar Perez

Event Type

Thesis Defense

Dissertation Committee Chair: Mohammad Hafezi and Kartik Srinivasan


Yanne Chemo

Efrain Rodriguez

Edo Waks

Xiyuan Lu

Abstract:  Integrated photonic devices like photonic crystals, microring resonators, and quantum emitters produce useful states of light, like solitons or single photons, through carefully engineered light-matter interactions. However, practical devices demand advanced integration techniques to meet the needs of cutting-edge technologies. High performance nanophotonic cavities and interconnects present opportunities to solve outstanding issues in the integration of nanophotonic devices. In this dissertation I develop three core tools required for the comprehensive integration of quantum emitters: wavelength-flexible excitation sources with enough pump power to drive down stream systems, photonic interconnects to spatially link the excitation sources to emitters, and cavities that can Purcell enhance quantum emitters without sacrificing other performance metrics.

To create wavelength-flexible excitation sources, high performance χ(3) microring Optical Parametric Oscillation (OPO) is realized in silicon nitride. Microring OPOs are nonlinear frequency conversion devices that can extend the range of a high quality on-chip (or off-chip) laser source to new wavelengths. However, parasitic effects normally limit the output power and conversion efficiency of χ(3) microring OPOs. This issue is resolved by using a microring geometry with very strongly normal dispersion, that uses multiple spatial mode families to satisfy the phase and frequency matching conditions. Our OPO achieves world-class performance with a conversion efficiency of up to 29% and an on-chip output power of over 18 mW.

To create photonic interconnects, Direct Laser Writing (DLW) is used to fabricate 3-dimensional (3D) nanophotonic devices that can couple light into and out of photonic chips. In particular, polymer microlenses of 20 µm diameter are fabricated on the facet of photonic chips that increase the tolerance of the chips to misaligned input fibers by a factor of approximately 4. DLW is also used to fabricate Polymer Nanowires (PNWs) with diameters smaller than 1 µm that can directly couple photons from quantum emitters into Gaussian-like optical modes. Comparing the same quantum emitter system before and after the fabrication of a PNW, a (3±0.7)× increase in the fiber-coupled collection efficiency is measured in the system with the PNW.

To refine the design of quantum emitter cavities, a toy model is used to understand the underlying mechanisms that shape the emission profiles of Circular Bragg Gratings (CBGs). Insights from the toy model are used to guide the Bayesian optimization of high performance CBG cavities suitable for coupling to single mode fibers. I also demonstrate cavity designs with Qs on the order of 105 that can be used in future experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics or nonlinear optics. Finally, I show that these cavities can be optimized for extraction to a cladded PNW while producing a Purcell enhancement factor of 100 with efficient extraction into the fundamental PNW mode.

The tools developed in this dissertation can be used to integrate individual quantum emitter systems or to build more complex systems, like quantum networks, that require the integration of multiple quantum emitters with multiple photonic devices.