Quantum Gas Microscope - Probing the Superfluid to Mott Insulator Transition at the Single Atom Level
The Quantum Gas Microscope enables high fidelity detection of single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice, bringing ultracold atom research to a new, microscopic level. We investigate the Bose-Hubbard model using space- and time-resolved characterization of the number statistics across the superfluid - Mott insulator quantum phase transition. Site-resolved probing of fluctuations provides us with a sensitive local thermometer, allows us to identify microscopic heterostructures of low entropy Mott do- mains, and enables us to measure local quantum dynamics, revealing surprisingly fast transition timescales. Our results may serve as a benchmark for theoretical studies of quantum dynamics, and open new possibilities for realizing and probing quantum magnetism.